Austria

The real first coffeehouse in Austria opened in Vienna in 1683 after the Battle of Vienna, by using supplies from the spoils obtained after defeating the Turks. The officer who received the coffee beans, Polish military officer of Ukrainian origin Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki, opened the coffee house and helped popularize the custom of adding sugar and milk to the coffee. 'Melange is the typical Viennese coffee, which comes mixed with hot foamed milk and a glass of water. The Battle of Vienna (German: Schlacht am Kahlenberg, Polish: Bitwa pod Wiedniem or Odsiecz Wiedenska, Turkish: Ikinci Viyana Kusatmas?) took place on 11 and 12 September[5] 1683 after Vienna had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months. It was a battle of the Holy Roman Empire in league with the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth (Holy League) versus the Ottoman Empire and chiefdoms of the Ottoman Empire at the Kahlenberg mountain near Vienna. The battle marked the beginning of the political hegemony of the Habsburg dynasty in the Holy Roman Empire and Central Europe.[citation needed] The battle was won by the combined forces of the Holy Roman Empire and the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth, however with the sole presence of the forces of Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (the march of the Lithuanian army was delayed, as a result of which they arrived in Vienna after it was relieved[6]). The Viennese garrison was led by Ernst Rudiger Graf von Starhemberg subordinate of Leopold I Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor. The overall command was held by the commander of the Polish Crown's forces, the King of Poland, Jan III Sobieski. The alliance fought the army of the Ottoman Empire and those of Ottoman fiefdoms commanded by Grand Vizier Merzifonlu Kara M

stafa Pasha. The siege itself began on 14 July 1683, by the Ottoman Empire army of approximately 90,000[1]-150,000[7]-300,000[8] men. The besieging force was composed of 60 ortas of Janissaries (12,000 men paper strength) with an observation army of c.70,000[9] men watching the countryside. The decisive battle took place on 12 September, after the united relief army of approximately 84,000 men had arrived. Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki (Ukrainian: - ) (1640 February 19, 1694), of the Sas coat of arms, was a western Ukrainian nobleman of Orthodox faith,[1] merchant, spy, diplomat and soldier, and considered a hero by the people of Vienna for his actions at the 1683 Battle of Vienna. According to a popular legend, he opened the first cafe in the city, using coffee beans left by the retreating Ottoman Turks. His name often rendered in German as Georg Franz Kolschitzky. The Ottoman Empire (Ottoman Turkish: ? Devlet-i ?Aliyye-yi ?Osmaniyye[4] Modern Turkish: Osmanl? Imparatorlugu), also historically referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state founded by Turkish tribes under Osman Bey in north-western Anatolia in 1299.[5] With the conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed II in 1453, the Ottoman state became an empire. The conquest of Constantinople was a pivotal event in the evolution of Turkish statehood, since the victory of 1453 cemented its Eurasian nature, which remains one of the essential characteristics of Modern Turkey. The empire reached its peak at 1590, covering parts of Asia, Europe and Africa. The reign of the long-lived Ottoman dynasty lasted for 623 years, from 27 July 1299[6][dn 2] to 1 November 1922, when the monarchy in Turkey was abolished.