Boiling

Boiling was the main method used for brewing coffee until the 1930s[2] and is still used in some Nordic and Middle Eastern countries.[3] The aromatic oils in coffee are released at 96 °C (205 °F), which is just below boiling, while the bitter acids are released when the water has reached boiling point.[4] The simplest method is to put the ground coffee in a cup, pour hot water over it and let cool while the grounds sink to the bottom. This is a traditional method for making a cup of coffee that is still used in parts of Indonesia. This method, known as "mud coffee" in the Middle East owing to an extremely fine grind that results in a mud-like sludge at the bottom of the cup, allows for extremely simple preparation, but drinkers then have to be careful if they want to avoid drinking grounds either from this layer or floating at the surface of the coffee, which can be avoided by dribbling cold water onto the "floaters" from the back of a spoon. If the coffee beans are not ground finely enough, the grounds do not sink. "Cowboy coffee" is made by heating coarse grounds with water in a pot, letting the grounds settle and pouring off the liquid to drink, sometimes filtering it to remove fine grounds. While the name suggests that this method was used by cowboys, presumably on the trail around a campfire, it is used by others; some people prefer this method. This method is still used in certain situations in Finland, Norway and Sweden, which have the highest consumption of coffee per-capita,[5][dead link] but filter brewing is the standard method there today. Cowboy coffee is connoisseur coffee if made properly. It should never be boiled. About 200 °F (93 °C) is the optimal temperature to make coffee. Bring the water to a simmer then remove from heat and wait a few minutes for it to cool to the optimal temperature. Use a hermometer or experience to do this. This time can be used to grind the coffee beans. A hand operated grinder can be used where no electrical power is available. Cowboy coffee is associated with crudely made coffee with a burned flavor because often out on the cattle drives the cook was inexperienced or in a hurry and boiled the water with the ground coffee in it. It was often too strongly flavored if the cook used standard proportions of coffee to water. This method requires less coffee. Use only about two thirds of the amount recommended for drip coffee. If high quality freshly ground coffee is poured into very hot but not yet simmering spring, rain, or filtered water in a glass or ceramic container and stirred a few moments with a wooden or ceramic utensil then allowed to set about a minute then filtered through a gold plated coffee screen, the result is equal or superior to more expensive or time consuming methods[citation needed]. The above methods are sometimes used with hot milk instead of water. Turkish coffee (aka Arabic coffee, etc.), a very early method of making coffee, is used in the Middle East, North Africa, East Africa, Turkey, Greece, the Balkans, and Russia. Very finely ground coffee, optionally sugar, and water are placed in a narrow-topped pot, called an cezve (Turkish), kanaka (Egyptian), briki (Greek), dzezva (Stokavian) or turka (Russian) and brought to the boil then immediately removed from the heat. It may be very briefly brought to the boil two or three times. Turkish coffee is sometimes flavored with cardamom, particularly in Arab countries. The resulting strong coffee, with foam on the top and a thick layer of grounds at the bottom, is drunk from small cups. The pot is sometimes referred to as an ibrik in the West, in the mistaken belief that it is the Turkish language name for the pot.