First uses

There are several legendary accounts of the origin of the drink itself. One account involves the Yemenite Sufi mystic Ghothul Akbar Nooruddin Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili.[5] When traveling in Ethiopia, the legend goes, he observed birds of unusual vitality, and, upon trying the berries that the birds had been eating, experienced the same vitality. Other accounts attribute the discovery of coffee to Sheik Abou'l Hasan Schadheli's disciple, Omar. According to the ancient chronicle (preserved in the Abd-Al-Kadir manuscript), Omar, who was known for his ability to cure the sick through prayer, was once exiled from Mocha to a desert cave near Ousab. Starving, Omar chewed berries from nearby shrubbery, but found them to be bitter. He tried roasting the beans to improve the flavor, but they became hard. He then tried boiling them to soften the bean, which resulted in a fragrant brown liquid. Upon drinking the liquid Omar was revitalized and sustained for days. As stories of this "miracle drug" reached Mocha, Omar was asked to return and was made a saint.[6] Another story involves a goat-herd, Kaldi, who, noticing the energizing effects when his flock nibbled on the bright red berries of a certain bush, chewed on the fruit himself. His exhilaration prompted him to bring the berries to a Monk in a nearby monastery. But the monk disapproved of their use and threw them into the fire, from which an enticing aroma billowed and the monks came out to investigate. The roasted beans were quickly raked from the embers, ground up, and dissolved in hot water, yielding the world's first cup of coffee. Coffee was mainly consumed in the Islamic world when it first originated and was very directly related to religion.[7] The Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo ethnic group, were the first to have recognized the energizing effect of the native coffee plant.[1] Studies of genetic diversity have been performed on Coffea arabica varieties, found to be of low diversity but which retained some residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, and closely related diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica;[8] however, no direct evidence has ever been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant, or known about it there earlier than the seventeenth century. The Shadhili Tariqa is a Sufi order of Sunni Islam[1] founded by Abul Hasan Ali ash-Shadhili.[2] Followers (Arabic murids, "seekers") of the Shadhiliya are known as Shadhilis. It has historically been of importance and influence in North Africa and Egypt with many contributions to Islamic literature. Among the figures most known for their literary and intellectual contributions are Ibn 'Ata Allah, author of the Hikam, and Ahmad Zarruq, author of numerous commentaries and works, and Ahmad ibn Ajiba who also wrote numerous commentaries and works. In poetry expressing love of Muhammad, there have been the notable contributions of Muhammad al-Jazuli, author of the "Dala'il al-Khayrat", and Busiri, author of the famous poem, the Qa?ida al-Burda. Many of the head lecturers of al-Azhar University in Cairo have also been followers of this tariqa. Of the various branches of the Shadhili tariqa are the Fassiyatush, found largely in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The Darqawi branch is found mostly in Morocco and the Alawiyya (no connection to the Turkish or Syrian Alawi or Alevi groups) which originated in Algeria is now found the world over, particularly in Syria, Jordan, France and among many English-speaking communities. British scholar, Martin Lings wrote an extensive biography of the founder of this branch, Ahmad al-Alawi, entitled 'A Sufi Saint of the 20th century' (ISBN 0-946621-50-0) The Swedish impressionist painter and Sufi scholar Ivan Agueli (1869Ц1917) was the first official Moqaddam (representative) of the Shadhiliyya in Western Europe. Agueli initiated Rene Guenon (1886Ц1951) into the Shadhili tariqa. [1] Guenon went on to write a number of influential books on tradition and modernity. [2] The annual celebration or URS of Hazrat Ghous-us-zamana Qutubul Akber Abul Hasan Shadhili (Razi) is held on 12th Shawwal (the tenth month of lunar calendar) in Humathara city of Egypt.