France

Antoine Galland (1646Ц1715) in his aforementioned translation described the Muslim association with coffee, tea and chocolate: "We are indebted to these great [Arab] physicians for introducing coffee to the modern world through their writings, as well as sugar, tea, and chocolate." Galland reported that he was informed by Mr. de la Croix, the interpreter of King Louis XIV of France, that coffee was brought to Paris by a certain Mr. Thevenot, who had travelled through the East. On his return to that city in 1657, Thevenot gave some of the beans to his friends, one of whom was de la Croix. In 1669, Soleiman Agha, Ambassador from Sultan Mehmed IV, arrived in Paris with his entourage bringing with him a large quantity of coffee beans. Not only did they provide their French and European guests with coffee to drink, but they also donated some beans to the royal court. Between July 1669 and May 1670, the Ambassador managed to firmly establish the custom of drinking coffee among Parisians. Antoine Galland (April 4, 1646 Ц February 17, 1715) was a French orientalist and archaeologist, most famous as the first European translator of The Thousand and One Nights (also known as The Arabian Nights in English). His version of the tales appeared in twelve volumes between 1704 and 1717 and exerted a huge influence on subsequent European literature and attitudes to the Islamic world. Galland was born at Rollot in Picardy (now in the department of Somme). After completing school at Noyon he studied Greek and Latin in Paris, where he also acquired some Arabic. In 1670, he was attached to the French embass at Istanbul because of his excellent knowledge of Greek, and in 1673 he travelled in Syria and the Levant, where he copied a great number of inscriptions, and sketched and -in some cases- removed historical monuments. After a brief visit to France, where his collection of ancient coins attracted some attention, Galland returned to the Levant in 1677 and in 1679 he undertook a third voyage, being commissioned by the French East India Company to collect for the cabinet of Colbert. On the expiration of this commission he was instructed by the government to continue his researches, and had the title of antiquary to the king (Louis XIV) conferred upon him. During his prolonged residences abroad he acquired a thorough knowledge of the Arabic, Turkish and Persian languages and literatures, which, on his final return to France, enabled him to render valuable assistance to Jean de Thevenot, the keeper of the royal library, and to Barthelemy d'Herbelot de Molainville. When d'Herbelot died in 1695, Galland continued his Bibliotheque orientale ("Oriental Library"), a huge compendium of information about Islamic culture. It was finally published in 1697 and was a major contribution to European knowledge about the Middle East, influencing writers such as William Beckford (in his oriental tale Vathek). Jean de Thevenot (16 June 1633 Ц 28 November 1667) was a French traveller in the East, who wrote extensively about his journeys. He was also a linguist, natural scientist and botanist. He was born in Paris and received his education in the College de Navarre. He was a nephew of Melchisedech Thevenot.