Netherlands

The race among Europeans to make off with some live coffee trees or beans was eventually won by the Dutch in 1616. Pieter van der Broecke, a Dutch merchant, obtained some of the closely guarded coffee bushes from Mocha, Yemen in 1616. He took them back to Amsterdam and found a home for them in the Botanical gardens, where they began to thrive. This apparently minor event received little publicity, but was to have a major impact on the history of coffee. The beans that van der Broecke stole from Mocha forty years earlier adjusted well to conditions in the greenhouses at the Amsterdam Botanical Garden and produced numerous healthy coffee bushes named Coffea Arabica. In 1658 the Dutch first used them to begin coffee cultivation in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and later in southern India. They abandoned the cultivation to focus on their Javanese plantations because they didn't want to oversupply the market and drop the price. Within a few years the Dutch colonies (Java in Asia, Suriname in the Americas) had become the main suppliers of coffee to Europe. The Dutch people (Dutch: Nederlanders (help·info)) are an ethnic group native to the Netherlands.[14] They share a common culture and speak the Dutch language. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Suriname, Chile, Brazil, Canada,[15] Australia,[16] South Africa,[17] New Zealand, and the United States.[18] The traditional art and culture of the Dutch encompasses various forms of traditional music, dances, architectural styles and clothing, some of which are globally recognizable. Internationally, Dutch painters such as Rembrandt, Vermeer and Van Gogh are held in high regard. The dominant religion o the Dutch is Christianity (both Catholic and Protestant), although in modern times the majority is no longer (openly) religious. Significant percentages of the Dutch are adherents of other religions (Islam, Buddhism), humanism, agnosticism, atheism or individual spirituality.[19][20] In the Middle Ages the Low Countries were situated around the border of France and the Holy Roman Empire, forming a part of their respective peripheries, and the various territories of which they consisted had de facto become virtually autonomous by the 13th century.[21] Under the Habsburgs, the Netherlands were organised into a single administrative unit, and in the 16th and 17th centuries the Northern Netherlands gained independence from Spain as the Dutch Republic.[22] The high degree of urbanization characteristic of Dutch society was attained at a relatively early date.[23] During the Republic the first series of large scale Dutch migrations outside of Europe took place. Sri Lanka's documented history spans three thousand years.[9] Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of great strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road[10] through to World War II.[11] Sri Lanka is a diverse country home to many religions, ethnicities and languages.[12] The Sinhalese people are the majority, although there are many ethnic minorities, including Tamils, Muslim Moors, Burghers, Kaffirs, Malays and the aboriginal Vedda people.[13] Sri Lanka has a rich Buddhist heritage, and the first known Buddhist writings were composed on the island.[14] The country's recent history has been marred by a thirty year inter-ethnic conflict which decisively but controversially[15] ended in a military victory in 2009.