The arrival of coffee in Colombia

The species of Coffea arabica came to Americas around the year 1690, and it was first cultivated in the Dutch East Indies. From there, the Dutch sent the coffee seeds to their colonies in Surinam, and thereafter to the French Guiana and Brazil. The French, through other routs, took it to Guadeloupe and Martinique, their main two colonies in the Caribbean.[2] It seems that the Jesuits were the first to introduce seeds of coffee in the "Nueva Granada" (today Colombia) by the year 1723. The first experiments in growing coffee in Colombia are recorded in the 18th century. Although some coffee plantations were initiated during the first half of the 19th century, it was not until the second half of the Century that the coffee industry was consolidated as an economic generator of employment, wealth, and hard currencies.[3] Coffee seeds arrived late in Colombia, compared with other Latin American countries. According to historians, the first seeds came in through Cucuta, coming from the Venezuelan Andes, and penetrated all across the Santander provinces. From there, its cultivation spread to Cundinamarca and other provinces.[4] Nobody knows for sure who brought the first coffee seeds into the country. Some historians give credit to the Jesuits monks, who had farming lands in the "Llanos Orientales", Valle del Cauca and other regions. Other historians point to father Romero, the parochial priest of Salazar de las Palmas, Norte de Santander. There are stories that narrate that father Romero would impose to his parishioners, in penance for their sins, to plant coffee seeds in their ba kyards. he Dutch East Indies (Dutch: Nederlands-Indie; Indonesian: Hindia-Belanda) was a Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia following World War II. It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company, which came under the administration of the Dutch government in 1800. During the 19th century, Dutch possessions and hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest territorial extent in the early 20th century. This colony which later formed modern-day Indonesia was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empire's rule,[2] and contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in 19th to early 20th century.[3] The colonial social order was based on rigid racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate but linked to their native subjects.[4] The term "Indonesia" came into use for the geographical location after 1880. In the early 20th century, local intellectuals began developing the concept of Indonesia as a nation state, and set the stage for an independence movement. [5] Japan's World War II occupation dismantled much of the Dutch colonial state and economy. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Indonesian nationalists declared independence which they fought to secure during the subsequent Indonesian National Revolution. The Netherlands formally recognized Indonesian sovereignty at the 1949 DutchЦIndonesian Round Table Conference with the exception of the Netherlands New Guinea (Western New Guinea), which was ceded to Indonesia in 1963 under the provisions of the New York Agreement.