World production

In 2009 Brazil was the world leader in production of green coffee, followed by Vietnam, Indonesia and Colombia.[2] Arabica coffee beans are cultivated in Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, or Asia. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa, throughout southeast Asia, and to some extent in Brazil.[3] Beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor, aroma, body, and acidity.[4] These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing.[5] Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java and Kona. Brazil i/brz?l/ (Portuguese: Brasil, IPA: [b?a?ziw][8]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil[9][10] (Portuguese: Republica Federativa do Brasil, listen (help·info)), is the largest country in South America and in the Latin America region. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 193 million people.[4][11] It is the largest Lusophone country in the world, and the only one in the Americas.[11] Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 km (4,655 mi).[11] It is bordered on the north by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French overseas region of French Guiana; on the northwest by Colombia; on the west by Bolivia and Peru; on the southwest by Argentina and Paraguay and on the south by Uruguay. Numerous archipelagos form part of Brazilian territory, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz.[11] It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile. Brazil was a colony of Portugal from the landing of Pedro Alvares Cabral in 1500 until 1815, when it was elevated to the rank of kingdom and the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was formed. The colonial bond was in fact broken in 1808, when the cap tal of the Portuguese colonial empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, after Napoleon invaded Portugal.[12] Independence was achieved in 1822 with the formation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The country became a presidential republic in 1889, when a military coup d'etat proclaimed the Republic, although the bicameral legislature, now called Congress, dates back to the ratification of the first constitution in 1824.[12] Its current Constitution, formulated in 1988, defines Brazil as a federal republic.[13] The Federation is formed by the union of the Federal District, the 26 States, and the 5,564 Municipalities. Colombia (pron.: /kl?mbi?/ k?-lum-bi?, or /kl?mbi?/ k?-lom-bi?), officially the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: Republica de Colombia [re?pu?lika ?e ko?lombja]), is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the east by Venezuela[7] and Brazil;[8] to the south by Ecuador and Peru;[9] and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Colombia is the 26th largest country by area and the fourth largest in South America after Brazil, Argentina and Peru. With over 46 million people, Colombia is the 27th largest country in the world by population and has the second largest population of any Spanish-speaking country in the world, after Mexico. Colombia is a middle power, and is now the fourth largest economy in Latin America, and the third largest in South America.[4] Colombia produces coffee, flowers, emeralds, coal, and oil. These products comprise the primary sector of the economy. The world's third biggest bank HSBC has created a perspective on the economic outlook in 2050 where Colombia is seen playing a decisive role in the global economy, especially in the Americas as the number 25 in the world economies measured by GDP.